*Absolute Surface Potential*, or just Suface potentential refers, as the name suggests, to the electrical potential on the surface of an object. It can be defined for any kind of object as long as it is made from matter. Knowing the absolute surface potential of an object allows us to work out how it will interact with other matter and how it will move in relation to another body. Likewise if we know how something moves we can define it's surface potential.

Defining the surface potential is a simple function of first converting the mass-energy into electron volts and then dividing it by the number of nucleons.

Allthough tecnically not a nucleon according to the standard model, the electron's surface potential is calculated the same way. The virtual surface of an electron is imagined to be at the classical electron radius, which is not as clearly defined in quantum mechanics, where the electron is concidered to be a point mass.

*The algebra is simple...*

511 kilo electron volts

--------------------------- = Surface Potential 511 kilo volts

1 electron

*For the proton the calculation works the same way*

938 million electron volts

------------------------------- = Surface potential 938 million volts

1 electron

*We can go on to calculate the surface potential of a Mol of Iron, which would weigh 55.8 grams and as a sphere would have a radius of 1.19 cm.*

3.13 * 10^28 million electron volts

------------------------------------------ = Surface Potential 928.1 million electron volts.

3.37232 * 10^25 electrons

So as one can see, the calculation is extremely simple, it's just a matter of knowing the mass and how many nucleons there are in a body.

Once we know the surface potential of two bodies, it becomes a piece of cake to calculate how it will move, as it follows the following law.

Difference in Surface potential

-------------------------------------- * c = Relative Velocity

Surface Potential of Proton

or

As we can see it no longer seems necessary to postulate a Force to make something move, it is simply a matter of knowing their surface potentials. This rule doesn't only apply to heavenly bodies or particle accellerators, but to everything in our daily life. When something moves, it happens because it's surface potential is different to yours.

In the case of a gravitational field the same rule applies, so if we are standing still, and not moving relative to the ground, we must assume our surface potential must be equal to the ground, but how can that be the case, our surface potential ought to be higher than that of the earth? Yes, in free fall it is, but when we are restricted by the earths surface the compression is enough to bring our surface potential into line with the earth, which on the absolute scale is 930 million volts.

Steven

PS: As always there is a standing invitation to shoot holes in my theories..